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Latest Lichen Moth Research Published

I’m happy to report that my latest research on lichen moths has just been published in the Journal of Lepidopterists’ Society: “Identification and Distribution of the Petrophila fulicalis species group (Crambidae): Taking Advantage of Citizen Science Data”, J. Lep. Soc. 75(2):113-127 (June 2021).

This is the latest effort coming out of my interest in this genus and previously highlighted in these journal articles:

https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/40151-sorting-out-feather-edged-and-heppner-s-petrophila (Sept 2020)
https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/39051-another-a-hah-moment-with-petrophila-moths (Aug 2020)
https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/27047-id-guide-6-notes-on-texas-petrophila-identification (Aug 2019)
https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/27037-id-guide-5-petrophila-research (Aug 2019)

iNaturalist plays a prominent role in my published article and several iNaturalists contributed important photos for it. Below, I’m going to tag a lot of the people I need to thank for helping bring this article to fruition.

A downloadable pdf of the above article is available from my page on ResearchGate.com (Chuck Sexton) and can also be access from this DropBox folder, along with full-sized versions of the figures and maps:
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/p1z94ahhrqv4n3x/AABom5yJV1wFmQfXCTz_QlCda?dl=0
(I hope I set up this DropBox link correctly. Let me know if you can't access it.)

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por gcwarbler gcwarbler | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario
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Species Descriptions

European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis)

Native to the European Atlantic coast but introduced to the United States for aquaculture. Shells are typically round or oval-shaped and 1.5-4 inches across. The top shell is more rounded while the bottom is almost completely flat. Shells can be white, cream, or brown in color and typically have tight concentric bands. European flat oysters originally came to Maine for aquaculture, but has since escaped captivity. The species is now considered invasive throughout New England.
Fun fact: European flat oysters can produce up to a million eggs at a time!

Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast. Shells are tear-shaped, elongated, and usually ridged, growing 3-5 inches long. They can be white, gray, or tan in color. They are filter feeders and form large reefs, filtering plankton and food particles out of the water. These hard-shelled reefs can also form the basis for many other forms of life. Disease, pollution, overharvesting, and spread of European flat oysters have caused eastern oyster populations to decline significantly.
Fun fact: A single eastern oyster can filter up to 50 gallons of water per day!

Soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast, but has since spread to Europe and the North American Pacific coast. They prefer to burrow in soft mud in tidal mudflats and can grow up to 4 inches long. Their shells are thin and easily broken, and they are often preyed upon by crabs, gulls, and moon snails. Soft-shelled clams are also known as "longnecks" or "steamers" and are an integral part of New England cuisine.
Fun fact: 90% of the soft-shelled clam harvest from Chesapeake Bay is exported to New England!

Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast, primarily harvested off the coast of New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula. Largest bivalves found in the western North Atlantic, reaching a maximum of 8.9 inches. Shells are thick, triangular, and yellow-whitish with rounded edges and concentric ridges. Shells do not close fully. Prefer coarse or fine sand. They are planktivorous filter feeders, filtering plankton and small plant matter from the water. They are preyed upon by snails, crabs, shrimp, and fish. Thanks to good management practices, surf clams are considered to have a healthy population.
Fun fact: West Atlantic surf clams can live up to 35 years!

Hard clam/Northern Quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast, grown and harvested under U.S. state and federal regulations. Can grow from 3-5 inches, but typically are on the lower end of the range when full grown. Shell is thick, gray to white in color, with outer concentric growth rings. Inside of the shell is white with violet markings. Some hatchery raised clams have dark, zigzag stripes across the shell. Slow growth rates, live from 12-20 years on average, but can live up to 40 years. Inhabit intertidal and subtidal areas and prefer a higher salt content in the water. Prefer a mixture of sand and mud with some coarse material (but can realistically live in any substrate type).
Fun fact: Hard clams are not considered a sustainable type of seafood unless they come from one of the growing number of aquaculture farms.

Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis leei)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast. Thin and elongated, reaching approximately 8 inches in length. Length is about six times the width with both ends equally as wide. Pink to purple-brown bands on a yellow to red-brown background, with many growth bands evident. The species prefers sand or muddy sand in lower tidal and shallow subtidal zones in bays or estuaries.
Fun fact: Harvested in coastal Massachusetts for homemade clam strips; towns have regulations for how many can be harvested at once!

Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

Native to both the East and West coasts of the United States, and a common species farmed worldwide. Have teardrop-shaped shells that are typically 2-4 inches long, and are blue, black, or dark brown in color. Typically live in the intertidal zone, attaching themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces using byssal threads. Can grow in massive groups called mussel beds.
Fun fact: Blue mussels are able to defend themselves from predatory snails by tying them down with byssal threads, trapping them.

Northern horsemussel (Modiolus modiolus)

Native to both coasts of North American, preferring colder waters along the northern coastlines. Large solid, swollen and oblong or triangular shaped shell. Hinged end is bluntly angled with the rest of shell being more gently curved. When younger, the outer shell is dark blue or purple-ish color. Once the mussels get older, they tend to be a glossy yellow or dark brown. No ribbing but growth lines may be noticeable. Inside of the shell is white except for areas where the muscles were attached. Typically 4 inches long, but can grow up to 8.6 inches. Often found living among gravel and rock, from just below low-tide line to 600 feet deep. Can form dense mats of live individuals, similar to blue mussels.
Fun fact: Found in many waterways around the world!

Atlantic ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa)

Native to the North American Atlantic coast. The ribbed mussel is relatively large, on average growing to be 2-4 inches. The shell is thin and fan shaped. The outer layer of the shell is glossy and black/brown with some yellow or white in color. The ribbed mussel on average can live to be 15 years old and can be found in subtidal oyster reefs, salt marshes, and man made structures. Ribbed mussels are filter feeders, consuming microscopic zooplankton.
Fun fact: Ribbed mussels live in aggregations with a density of 2,000-3,000 per square meter in New England!

Atlantic bay scallop (Argopectan irradians)

Native to the Atlantic coast, from the Gulf of Mexico to Cape Cod. The Atlantic bay scallop is rounded with distinctive ridges along the shell edges and can grow up to 3 inches in diameter. The color of this species varies from gray, purple, brown, and red. The interior of the shell is white. The shells hinge has two pronounced points. Bay scallops have small tentacles and 30-40 blue eyes visible on the shell edges. The species is a filter feeder, found in shallow waters and eelgrass beds. They can live for up to 2 years.
Fun fact: Scallops are able to swim by clapping their shells together!

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por boha_nrp boha_nrp | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Donnelley WMA, SC: Scarlet Snake Find

Scarlet Snake, Cemophora coccinea, at Donnelley WMA, South Carolina, USA
© Photographer: William Wise | iNat Observation: 82610432

The sun was climbing higher and brighter. The humidity and warm, stifling air was already bearing down on me, causing my feet to stumble through the thorns, briers and saw palmetto. I had been pushing through South Carolina low-country scrub for several hours already.

I was thankful to escape the bush and come out onto a dirt road that cut through the Donnelley Wildlife Management Area. As I walked through this shady mixed forest of hardwood and pine, I didn’t feel like lifting my heavy lens to shoot any birds. I just walked with my head looking down toward the ground. And that’s when I spotted it…!

Scarlet Snake, Cemophora coccinea, at Donnelley WMA, South Carolina, USA
© Photographer: William Wise | iNat Observation: 82610432

A glint of color caught my eye amongst all the green vegetation lining the road. A snake! My normal reaction was to reach down and grab it. But the colors were red, black and yellow. I had to take a moment to calculate this one before grabbing. But I quickly recognized it as the harmless pattern of a non-venomous variety. I reached down and quickly grabbed this small Scarlet Snake.

This cute little snake was quite docile and calmly sat in my hand as I switched from my 600mm lens to a macro lens. A beautiful find! The first I’ve found in my thirty years of herping.

Photographed in the Donnelley Wildlife Management Area; Colleton County, South Carolina, USA

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por williamwisephoto williamwisephoto | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Project Instructions

Begin by measuring out a section of the shore close to the water that is 1 meter by 5 meters, using the ropes provided. The longer side of your rectangle should be parallel to the waterline, like in the diagram below.
image.

Use the map provided to select your location of study. Next, begin documenting the bivalves in your study area. Go one species at a time, following the list below, and remove shells from your area after counting them to prevent confusion or double counting. Please note that we are only collecting information about the bivalves that occur on the surface - you should not need to dig to fill out the survey. Please send any comments or questions to bastidas@mit.edu.

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por boha_nrp boha_nrp | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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The terns of Sai Kung

The islets and seafood-rich waters of Sai Kung harbour offer excellent habitat for terns. On spring passage, whiskered terns are commonly seen, sometimes with white-winged black terns. In summer, black-naped terns are common and roseate terns are often with them, sometimes harrassed by lesser frigatebirds. Today black-naped and roseate terns were sharing the channel marker off Sai Kung Pier, along with one or two common terns of the local subspecies longipennis, distinguished by the black bill and dark legs.

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por stephenmatthews stephenmatthews | 3 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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A comparison of adaptive colouration between lookalikes: grey rhebok and mountain reedbuck

The grey rhebok (Pelea capreolus) and the mountain reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) are similar in body size, ecologically related, and partly sympatric. Both species are weakly gregarious with plain colouration, and their appearances are so similar that naturalists frequently confuse them. Here I point out differences in their colouration, however subtle, which could be adaptively significant.

The most obvious difference is that, although both species have a white underside to the tail, this is displayed while fleeing only in the grey rhebok. This difference is so categorical and consistent that it can be used to identify fleeing figures at distances too great for details of the animals to be observed.

The second most important difference is that, although both species are countershaded with pale on the ventral torso and inner surfaces of the upper hindlegs, white extends just high enough on the belly of the mountain reedbuck to catch the light in the form of a crisply-defined ruff of fur (see https://biggamehuntingadventures.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/mountain-reedbuck-shot-placement-broadside.jpg and https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-mountain-reedbuck-south-africa-image11193305 and http://www.waterberg-bioquest.co.za/Mammal%20spp%20pgs/red_fulv.html). Also, the white on the tip of the inert tail extends narrowly up the sides of the tail (see https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-mountain-reedbuck-reedbok-image15546303 and https://fineartamerica.com/featured/female-mountain-reedbuck-peter-chadwickscience-photo-library.html?product=canvas-print and https://www.castledewildt.co.za/mountain-reedbuck-breeding-parcel/). These two white features of the stationary mountain reedbuck, although conspicuous only at fairly close quarters, distinguish it from both the grey rhebok (see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81306076) and the other two species of reedbucks.

One interpretation is that the white display of the grey rhebok Is a dynamic, long-distance one communicating mainly with predators, whereas the white display of the mountain reedbuck is a static, secretive one communicating mainly with its own species. The caudal flag of the grey rhebok discourages pursuit whereas the subtle highlights of the mountain reedbuck maintain group-cohesion as the animals graze in dim light. It makes social sense that the mountain reedbuck - which shuns reedbeds in favour of exposed grassy slopes - is somewhat more showy than the other species of reedbucks, which are more cover-dependent and less gregarious.

A small-scale difference is located about the lips. The grey rhebok has a darkish vertical mark - reminiscent of various species of deer but unlike other antelopes - below the side of the mouth (see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/16496842 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11867209). In all reedbucks this surface is pale, and the front of the upper lips is more noticeably whitish than in the grey rhebok (see https://www.zoochat.com/community/media/mountain-reedbuck-berlin-tierpark-9th-september-2011.162739/). I interpret these patterns as buccal semets, the function of which is to facilitate the mutual monitoring of cud-chewing by group members.

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por milewski milewski | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Гриб-зонтик и новости за 2 недели

Полторы сотни наблюдений грибов сделано за прошедшие 2 недели ранне-летнего слоя, из них 35 - саркосомы шаровидной!
🎉 Мы прошли отметку 10 тысяч наблюдений в нашем проекте! Отметили в момент, когда сидели в лесу (во время экскурсии) на пеньке и разбирали коллекцию.
🍄 Начался слой маслят, подберезовиков и подосиновиков. Следующая наша экскурсия будет им посвящена.
Много фотографировали ржавчинных грибов на майнике, крапиве, шиповнике, малине и даже вороньем глазе. Многие виды из этой группы определяются по хозяевам, но пока ждем экспертов или сами учимся. Меняю обложку проекта на фотографию ржавчинного гриба, для разнообразия.
🍄 Замечательную находку гриба-зонтика Ольвье сделала @tls-60. Опять на муравейнике (и первая находка была на нем), удивительные предпочтения у этого вида: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83484696

Спасибо всем активным наблюдателям проекта ранне-летнего слоя!

Место Наблюдатель Наблюдений Видов
1 @viktoriabilous 62 14
2 @tls-60 30 15
3 @ninacourlee 19 7
4 @elenabutunina 14 9
5 @elvirka 6 4
6 @naturalist59399 6 2
7 @w0wviktoria 6 4
8 @regina_diachkova 5 4
9 @sofya_hm 5 2
10 @urmansky 2 1
11 @naturalist18463 1 1
Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por ninacourlee ninacourlee | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario
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Southern Green Stink Bug

As this project approaches 6000 total observations, it is worth noting that of the over 4000 research grade observations, of the top five most frequently observed species, three were brought to North America by humans. The fourth of these species (Nezara viridula) typically goes by the generic-sounding common name of “Southern green stink bug”, though there’s actually nothing terribly “southern” about the species. It’s now found far outside what might have been its native setting (probably East Africa), and has what amounts to a global distribution, though (like with BMSB) its occurrences seem to coincide with human population centers. While N. viridula doesn’t seem to concentrate in numbers as would a nuisance pest species, it occurs to a sufficient extent - and has a big enough appetite - to be a significant plant pest.

Like Pentatomidae in general, N. viridula thrives in part due to its chemical defense, which has been analyzed to contain a cocktail of at least seven organic compounds (ref. Secret Weapons, Eisner et. al. 2005). This isn’t to say it’s invulnerable: apparently, a parasitic wasp imported to the US (Trissolcus basalis) locates Nazara’s eggs by following the traces of these chemicals; a native species of tachnid fly (Trichopoda pennipes) is unaffected by the stink bug’s defenses, and follows the “scent” of the bug’s pheromones in order to parasitize the adults. Despite these depredations, Nezara viridula persists among California’s tomato and bean crops.

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por jbryant jbryant | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Pollinator Week!

JUNE 21-27, 2021.
Pollinator Week is an annual event celebrated internationally in support of pollinator health. It's a time to celebrate pollinators and spread the word about what we can do to protect them. The great thing about Pollinator Week is that you can celebrate and get involved any way you like! Popular events include planting for pollinators, hosting socially distant garden tours, participating in online bee and butterfly ID workshops, and so much more. However you choose to celebrate this year, be sure to register your event on the map below, and share your story with us by tagging us on social media using the hashtag #PollinatorWeek.

https://www.pollinator.org/pollinator-week

https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/pollinator-week-2021-pollinator-bioblitz

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por biohexx1 biohexx1 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Pollinator Week!

JUNE 21-27, 2021.
Pollinator Week is an annual event celebrated internationally in support of pollinator health. It's a time to celebrate pollinators and spread the word about what we can do to protect them. The great thing about Pollinator Week is that you can celebrate and get involved any way you like! Popular events include planting for pollinators, hosting socially distant garden tours, participating in online bee and butterfly ID workshops, and so much more. However you choose to celebrate this year, be sure to register your event on the map below, and share your story with us by tagging us on social media using the hashtag #PollinatorWeek.

https://www.pollinator.org/pollinator-week

https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/pollinator-week-2021-pollinator-bioblitz

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por biohexx1 biohexx1 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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New Tiger Moth Record for Alberta and the Waterton Lakes NP Species List.

A recent discovery by Spencer Quayle of a mating pair of Leptarctia californiae is not only new for the park but a new record for the Alberta checklist. To view this exciting record visit: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80995000.

To date, survey work has led to the documentation of 793 species in the park, making it the most diverse place for Lepidoptera in Alberta. Of these, 94 are butterflies, 415 are macro-moths and 284 are micro-moths. Of those collected, 207 were ranked as ‘rare’ and 110 as ‘uncommon’. A total of 106 species discovered in the park are found nowhere else in Alberta, with 3 being a new record for Canada. This works out to about 30% of the Lepidopera species known in Alberta including 48 families of Lepidopterans. Though I suspect we have likely found the lion’s share of species that reside here, there are likely at least another 200 species or so that remain undiscovered as we try and explore some of the harder to reach habitats in the alpine and more isolated regions of the park.

To view the updated species list and follow the project visit: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Survey-of-the-Lepidoptera-of-Waterton-Lakes-National-Park

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por mothmaniac mothmaniac | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Went on a nature walk today at Mather woods in Plainfield IL

I found way more than I expected and my mom even found a few! Here's a list of everything we found...

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2021 por botanist_j botanist_j | 23 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Folly Cove Fish

A large number of sizable winter flounder in the cove today. the stock is supposed to be grossly overfished, so good to see many fish of reproductive age. Also, a small colorful nudibranch which as luck would have it, my SD card was filled. Water temperature was 53 F at 30 feet.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por pcolarus pcolarus | 1 observación | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Getting Some Data Density Built Up ...

Take a look at the Gray Squirrels of the Great Plains sub-project ... we are starting to build up a nice body of evidence about where is the range limit, roughly at the longitude of Topeka, Kansas, at least for the Kansas part of the range limit. The Interesting records are in Cottonwood Falls and in Salina, where there are outlying records. I will go to those two cities in coming months to verify whether the squirrels are persisting there, which will make for some interesting inferences.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por a__townsend a__townsend | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Starting this project off

Hi everyone, I am interested in the ranges and range dynamics of Eastern Gray Squirrels and Eastern Fox Squirrels in the towns, cities, and forested areas of the Great Plains. I am assembling old and new information about the distributions of these two species, including museum specimen data, my own observations, and ... I hope ... observations from you all. All contributions will be acknowledged in any publication(s) that result from this work. Many thanks!

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por a__townsend a__townsend | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Oops....

I just updated the project requirements to exclude Unknown observations - oops! Thank you to Dave Small for pointing that out.

-- Lynn Harper

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por lynnharper lynnharper | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Day 2 of our Summer Bioblitz!

Day 2 is going wonderfully! Today's sunshine has brought all iNaturalist enthusiasts out! We love seeing your observations, from the Northern Leopard Frog to the American White Admiral!

We are already at 86 observations today! More than DOUBLE of yesterday's observations. Let's keep the momentum going. We still have just over 32 hours to go.

Keep observing!

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por biodiversity_ecologyottawa biodiversity_ecologyottawa | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Genus Eubulus

Data on Genus Eubulus (subtribe Cryptorhynchina, tribe Cryptorhynchini, subfamily Cryptorhynchinae)

The Wikipedia page for Cryptorhynchinae states that there are 204 named species of Eubulus worldwide. iNaturalist has Observations for only 7 of those species worldwide (56 Observations), with 5 of the 7 occurring in North America - 3 North of Mexico and 2 in Mexico only. I have found the top two at a single site in Pennsylvania.

E. obliquefasciatus (US)
E. bisignatus (US, C)
E. parochus (C)
E. brevis (M)
E. marginatus (M)
E. triangularis
E. miniatus

A similarly-sized North American dataset with a different mix of species is found in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database - 44 Observations & Museum-preserved specimens as follows:

E. bisignatus (US)
E. parochus (US & C)
E. nimbatus (Panama) [Yes, Panama is part of North America, as I just learned]
E. alticarinatus (Panama)

The BugGuide platform (which only covers the US and Canada), has 40 Observations of the following species in total for the 2 countries (39 in the US and 1 in Canada):

E. bisignatus
E. obliquefasciatus
E. parochus

The 3 US & Canadian species recorded on these 3 platforms are mirrored by professional findings published in 2002 by R. S. Anderson.

A more recent article can be found on jstor.org:

"A Review of the Genus Eubulus Kirsch 1869 in the United States and Canada (Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae)," by Robert S. Anderson, The Coleopterists Bulletin, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Jun., 2008), pp. 287-296 (10 pages), Published By: The Coleopterists Society

Abstract:

"The genus Eubulus is reviewed for the United States and Canada. Three species are recognized; E. parochus (Herbst), E. bisignatus (Say) and E. obliquefasciatus (Boheman), resurrected name. A neotype is designated for Eubulus bisignatus (Say). A key to the three species is presented and natural history information and distributions are summarized. Three additional specimens of Eubulus collected in North America, but not assigned to species, are discussed."

This paper states that:

"Like most Cryptorhynchinae, adults are associated with dead limbs of various trees. North American species are associated with Junglandacaea [Walnut], Fagacaea [Beech], and Aceracaea [Maple]." The site where I have made my Observations is adjacent to many American beech trees and a few Maple trees.

The authors also discuss an interesting study by Halik & Bergdahl (2002 and 2006), on the role of E. parochus in the distribution of pathogenic fungal spores as the larvae mine beneath the bark of freshly downed butternut (white walnut) limbs.

E. bignatus and E. obliquefasciatus are noted as being attracted to lights, which is how I made my Observations.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por kidneymoth kidneymoth | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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The Halfway Point

We are halfway through MIIDGE2021 and I don't know about you, but I'm beginning to get confused about where I am, which observations I've uploaded and which I've not, and where I'm due to go next.

In other words, I am having fun, and Dave Small and I certainly hope you are, too! The weather is and will be good, so get out there and enjoy!

--Lynn Harper

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por lynnharper lynnharper | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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where i fall behind

this note is for myself
I am up to date June 15 2021
and somewhere in the future i will check if i ever finished June 2020, i think i did.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por jozien jozien | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Smith River Biodiversity reaches 1000 native species!

Its taken 5 years but the project just surpassed 1000 unique species! Because this project only includes native species from research grade observations its a lot more restricted than other regional projects. That said, its a true representation of the regions native flora and fauna. Many thanks to all who have contributed and looking forward to the next 1000 species.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por justingarwood justingarwood | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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The white-tailed deer has more than just a caudal flag

Anyone with an interest in ungulates knows that the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) raises its tail, showing the white underside. However, what is not widely realised is how expansive, complex and versatile the demonstrations of alarm are in this species.

When the foraging white-tailed deer jerks up its head in routine vigilance, it tends to flick the tail each time before lowering the head. When it suspects the approach of a predator, it shows various combinations of 'foot-stamping', tail-flagging and alarm-sneezing. The forefeet are lifted high but not stamped hard, suggesting that the main message sent is olfactory, from the interdigital glands. The tail may be raised to a rigid horizontal position (see https://www.facebook.com/MPGWildlife/videos/753907188442406), and this seems to be a purely visual signal.

Variation in the repertoire depends on the pattern of movement of the tail and whether white fur is piloerected (flared) or not (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bf1j33Ja1so and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAVb_Jj1CC0 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5fM9qlBsMYE). Sometimes the tail remains down but the long fur on the buttocks is piloerected as the animal stands in initial alarm (http://mtnhp.org/thumbnail/defaultGen.aspx?itemid=391827&maxWidth=1024&maxHeight=768 and https://www.olo-7.top/ProductDetail.aspx?iid=62999139&pr=27.99 and https://www.olo-7.top/ProductDetail.aspx?iid=57741456&pr=27.99 and third photo in https://www.mossyoak.com/our-obsession/blogs/deer/how-to-read-whitetail-body-language). As suspense builds, the animal may flick the tail up and down, without piloerection, while walking stiff-legged before running.

Once fleeing begins, the white fur on the underside of the tail and/or that on the buttocks may be piloerected (see https://www.olo-7.top/ProductDetail.aspx?iid=57741356&pr=22.99 and third photo in https://www.welcomewildlife.com/white-tailed-deer/ and https://wdfw.wa.gov/species-habitats/species/odocoileus-virginianus-leucurus). The tail may be wagged from side to side while erect and flared. Sometimes, the animal stots (https://www.flickr.com/photos/conradkuiper/40834012061 and second photo in https://owenslaterphotography.com/category/north-american-wildlife/mammals/white-tailed-deer/).

Erection of the tail and piloerection of the tail/buttocks tend to be most frequent in females and juveniles (https://www.flickr.com/photos/23326338@N04/8988960173/), and in open vegetation. Adult males sometimes tuck their tails in while fleeing, thus showing no caudal flag (https://fineartamerica.com/featured/high-flying-white-tail-deer-gordon-allen.html ); and this may tend to be when females are absent. The sexual difference in displays is consistent with the tendency for males to have relatively short tails and fur on the buttocks.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por milewski milewski | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Добровольные корреспонденты-фенологи

Завтра 20.06.21 подводим промежуточные итоги:
с 1.06.21 по 19.06.21 в Биоблице №1 приняли участие:

1 @ekaterinap
2 @naturalist48908
3 @fenolog
4 @zemleved
5 @popowaolga

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por fenolog fenolog | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Ramapo valley nature preserve

I went on a 1 and a half our walk in a local preserve near me. I was walking near a waterfall and a lake throughout the forest. I saw lots of small plants on the ground because of the trees of the forest not letting a lot of the light through. As I was walking through the woods a snake started to slither in front of my mom and I and i thought it would be a good idea to get a photo but then the snake turned its self towards me so i left it alone. Along the path I walked I saw some ferns and was seeing if I could find a sporophyte of the fern but I didn't have any luck. I got to say the walk was really hot because of the sun and the humidity of the forest wasn't helping. As my walk was coming to an end around more an hour and a half after entering the forest i saw something i thought to be some wine berries, which was cool because it was one of the things i had hoped to see in the forest. Over all I ended walking 3 miles and it was a great walk although my mom was scared of bears the whole time.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por narteaga narteaga | 6 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Walk

I decided I'd take a walk in the same area as last time to compare how different my findings would be. When I went for my walk it was in the high 70s and the sun was shining. I was definitely able to find more plant species than I did fungi, in fact, it felt like I was in a completely different place. I was able to find 7 different plants to which the iNaturalist app helped me identify as a Weeping Willow Salix babylonica, Oriental Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus, Monocots Class Liliopsida, Mulberries Genus Morus, Tree-of-Heaven Ailanthus altissima, Bittersweet Nightshade Solanum dulcamara, and Clovers Genus Trifolium. I, unfortunately, wasn't able to find any algae on my walk. I enjoyed walking around and seeing so many different kinds of plants sprouting from the ground in such a small area.

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por brenda_e brenda_e | 7 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Welcome to the 2021-2022 Field Ecology year!

June 21, 2021

Welcome to the 2021-2022 Field Ecology year!
Keep your heart and mind open to our beautiful landscape - and your eyes open for new species to post!! I suggest starting with the easy and obvious species. As the year goes on, it will get harder and harder to find new species - you'll have to look and watch more closely - and your sense of connection to our desert will deepen.

Kufurahia!!

(that is 'enjoy' in Swahili)

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por mamalorax mamalorax | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Riverdale Nature Walk

Today I went for a walk with my sister again, this time in the afternoon. It had rained in the morning so when we went out it was a bit cloudy, but eventually, it cleared up and got quite warm (about 25 C). We decided to go through Riverdale Park and towards Riverdale Farm. We ended up walking through Toronto Necropolis as well. Since it had just rained, I was expecting to see more worms out on the ground since that's what I've observed before, but surprisingly we did not see any. We did, however, see quite a few caterpillars that appeared to be of the same kind. I have heard that recently that Toronto and Ontario have had an overwhelming amount of gypsy moths infesting trees this year so it's likely that those are what we saw. Otherwise, in terms of animals, it was mostly common city-dwelling animals like squirrels and pigeons. We walked along a path through the park towards the farm and along the fence were a lot of leafy green plants with the occasional flower. The cemetery was a very pretty walk but it was more landscaped. Maybe if we had gone into the Don Valley again we would have seen more, but it was nice to change up the route!

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por soniawalk soniawalk | 19 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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My tadpoles I have been raising grew into beautiful gulf coastal toads.

My tadpoles hatched!

Ingresado el 19 de junio de 2021 por welovecreatures welovecreatures | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Nature Walk 6/18/21

For my second nature walk, I just walked around my neighborhood as I was running errands. The weather was nice and enjoyable, not too hot and not too cold. Around my neighborhood and Santa Monica in general, I saw lots of palm trees, colorful flowers, and a fair amount of succulents. The first picture I took was of some purple and yellow flowers that grow right outside my building. As I walked further down near the beach, I saw these pink flowers that were so big that they were partially blocking the sidewalk. As I walked towards Montana Ave, I saw these purple flowers that are very prominent in Santa Monica. As I was walking on 4th heading to CVS, I snapped a picture of these palm trees that span 4th St and go down to North Montana. After completing this weeks module, it has become evident to me that palm trees must have some really long xylem and phloem to transport water and sugars up to its leaves at the top. After my way back from CVS, I snapped a picture of some succulents on 3rd St. I never really took in how diverse Santa Monica's plant life is and appreciate it even more now.

Ingresado el 18 de junio de 2021 por calebevo calebevo | 5 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Plant-Focused Nature Walk

For this week's nature walk, I went to the same park as last week but decided to take a different walking path for a change of scenery. The park is quite forest-y, with lots of trees, grass, and green plants. It was difficult to find vibrant flowers, but I saw many beautiful green plants nonetheless. First, I found what I believe to be a wineberry plant, which is actually an invasive species that I was surprised to encounter many times throughout my walk. I also found a black cherry tree, which I thought was really pretty, and more duckweeds in the same stream as my previous walk. I was surprised to see that it covered most of the small stream's surface, since it was very sheltered and shaded by trees, so it didn't get much sunlight. Other plants that I observed included moss, some sort of vascular plant with thorns, and two different kinds of ferns. My most curious plant find was my last observation, which had a small thin stem and pink buds at the end. During my walk I also encountered some other organisms, like a blue dragonfly, a white butterfly, and a cute little family of geese.

Ingresado el 18 de junio de 2021 por kkitrick kkitrick | 11 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Vida Silvestre es una entidad asociada a la Organización Mundial de Conservación