Diario del proyecto BIOL 111 Insects Project

12 de octubre de 2021

Audrey Gilmour: Fungi (Bioblitz lab 5- Irpex lacteus)

Irpex lacteus is typically found growing on dead wood, causing white-rot. Indeed, White-rot fungi play an important role in turnover of organic matter in ecosystems because they efficiently break down lignin using extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. This species, characterized by its remarkable resistance to pollutant toxicity and its biodegradation capabilities, has the potential to be used in bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters (that have been contaminated with synthetic dyes or endocrine disruptors, for example). Irpex lacteus can also be used by humans in the testing of chemical and biological wood preservatives because it is wood-decay fungus.

Ingresado el 12 de octubre de 2021 por audreygilmour audreygilmour | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

17 de septiembre de 2021

Audrey Gilmour: Insects (Bioblitz lab 2- phylogeny and adaptations)

Phylogeny

Using the OneZoom phylogenetic tree, I located Helophilus fasciatus (Narrow-headed Marsh Fly) in relation to its sister species (Helophilus hybridus and Helophilus hochstetteri) and their common ancestor(s). They are all part of the Helophilus genus of the Ersitalini tribe, a subset of the Sirphidae family of the Diptera order which falls under the clade of winged insects (derived from Insects, a group of arthropods belonging to Protostomes and therefore animals) (Schoch CL, et al., 2020).

Common adaptation: tracheal breathing system

All the species we observed were insects and they share a common physiological adaptation. Insect respiration has adapted to best meet the oxygen demands associated with insects' high metabolic rates (Moerbitz & Hetz, 2010). Their respiratory system is composed of tubes (tracheae) that conduct air directly from the spiracles (external vents) to their tissues (Powell, 2003).

Bumblebee unique adaptation:

The bumblebees’ venomous sting serves as a pain-inflicting defense mechanism. The venom, delivered through a specialized stinging apparatus is produced in structures that evolved from female accessory reproductive glands. This physiological adaptation allows bees to defend their colonies from large predators and is therefore thought to have played a role in the evolution of their eusocial behavior (communal living) (Van Vaerenbergh, 2013).

Bibliography

Canadian Wildlife Federation. (2020). Why Join iNaturalist.ca? Retrieved September 16, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rFHM2HQwxo&t=129s.

Moerbitz, C., & Hetz, S. K. (2010). Tradeoffs between metabolic rate and spiracular conductance in discontinuous gas exchange of Samia Cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 56(5), 536–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.08.003

Powell, K. (2003). Bug breathing exposed. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/news030120-9

Schoch CL, et al. (2020). Taxonomy browser (helophilus). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=226173&lvl=0.

Team, O. Z. (n.d.). Onezoom Tree of life explorer, text page for Helophilus Altaicus. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from https://www.onezoom.org/life/@Helophilus_altaicus=4354527?img=best_any&anim=flight#x1006,y48,w1.4393.

Van Vaerenbergh, M. (2013). Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) and Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Venom: Analysis and Immunological Importance of the Proteome. Ghent University. Retrieved September 16, 2021. https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/4194060/file/4336838

PhD thesis

Ingresado el 17 de septiembre de 2021 por audreygilmour audreygilmour | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Audrey Gilmour: Insects (Bioblitz lab 2- phylogeny and adaptations)

  1. Phylogeny

Using the OneZoom phylogenetic tree, I located Helophilus fasciatus (Narrow-headed Marsh Fly) in relation to its sister species (Helophilus hybridus and Helophilus hochstetteri) and their common ancestor(s). They are all part of the Helophilus genus of the Ersitalini tribe, a subset of the Sirphidae family of the Diptera order which falls under the clade of winged insects (derived from Insects, a group of arthropods belonging to Protostomes and therefore animals) (Schoch CL, et al., 2020).

  1. Common adaptation: tracheal breathing system

All the species we observed were insects and they share a common physiological adaptation. Insect respiration has adapted to best meet the oxygen demands associated with insects' high metabolic rates (Moerbitz & Hetz, 2010). Their respiratory system is composed of tubes (tracheae) that conduct air directly from the spiracles (external vents) to their tissues (Powell, 2003).

  1. Bumblebee unique adaptation: Venom

The bumblebees’ venomous sting serves as a pain-inflicting defense mechanism. The venom, delivered through a specialized stinging apparatus is produced in structures that evolved from female accessory reproductive glands. This physiological adaptation allows bees to defend their colonies from large predators and is therefore thought to have played a role in the evolution of their eusocial behavior (communal living) (Van Vaerenbergh, 2013).

Bibliography:
Canadian Wildlife Federation. (2020). Why Join iNaturalist.ca? Retrieved September 16, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rFHM2HQwxo&t=129s.

Moerbitz, C., & Hetz, S. K. (2010). Tradeoffs between metabolic rate and spiracular conductance in discontinuous gas exchange of Samia Cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 56(5), 536–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.08.003

Powell, K. (2003). Bug breathing exposed. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/news030120-9

Schoch CL, et al. (2020). Taxonomy browser (helophilus). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=226173&lvl=0.

Team, O. Z. (n.d.). Onezoom Tree of life explorer, text page for Helophilus Altaicus. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from https://www.onezoom.org/life/@Helophilus_altaicus=4354527?img=best_any&anim=flight#x1006,y48,w1.4393.

Van Vaerenbergh, M. (2013). Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) and Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Venom: Analysis and Immunological Importance of the Proteome. Ghent University. Retrieved September 16, 2021. https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/4194060/file/4336838

PhD thesis

Ingresado el 17 de septiembre de 2021 por audreygilmour audreygilmour | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

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